English grammar, Nouns and Pronoun

Nouns articles and pronouns

1 Singular of nouns

The singular of nouns has no ending, ex: boy, car, girl.

2 Plural of nouns
The plural of English nouns is formed by adding an -s to the singular, ex boy - boys, car - cars.
If the singular ends in s, sh or ch, you add -es (pronounced is)

3 Genitive of nouns
The genitive is made by adding -'s (with an apostrophe first), ex: girl's, men's.
If the singular ends in s, sh or ch, you just add the -' (apostrophe). This happens with the genitive of most plural forms that allready have an s, ex: girls'.
You often express the genitive by using the preposition "of", ex: the car of the man.

4 Irregular nouns
Some nouns are irregular: child - children, goose -geese, man - men, woman - women, ox - oxen

5 Indefinite articles
The indefinite article is used when one only wants to tell what a thing is, without saying anything about the identity of the object, or to indicate that some object is spoken of for the first time.
The indefinite article is "a" before consonants and "an" before vowels, and it is placed before its noun. it is used only in the singular and mostly about countable objects, ex: a man, an ox, a car.
In plural, the word "some" may be used as an indefinite article in an affirmative clause, but often one does not use indefinite articles in the plural, ex: I see some boys down in the street.
In plural and singular, the word "any" may be used as an indefinite article if one asks about something or denies something, ex: Do you see any girl down there? No, I do not see any girl there. Are there any students in the classroom? I do not see any students yet.
The words "some" or "any" may also be used as indefinite articles about uncountable substances, ex: Give me some water. Is there any water here?

6 The definite article
The definite article indicates that the thing spoken of has been talked about allready, or is particularly known by the listener allready.
The definite article is "the", and it is placed before its noun, ex: the man, the ox. The definite article is sometimes omitted about things often talked about, ex: I have to go to work right now.
The definite article is sometimes omitted about things often talked about in a context or environment, ex: I have to go to work right now.

7 Personal pronouns
Personal pronouns have different forms when used as subject and object, and also has genitive forms. The object forms are also used after prepositions. When the subject and the object is the same, the reflexive object forms are used.
Subject Object Genitive form before nouns Genitive form when used alone Reflexive object
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you you yours yourselves
they them them theirs theirselves

Examples: He has seen me. I see you. Here is my house. The house is mine. He is washing himself.
The reflexive object forms are often omitted. He is shaving. (means he is shaving himself)

8 Deictic and indefinite pronouns
Deictic pronouns is used to point out something and to mark identity.
Deictic pronouns - about near objects: This (singular) - these (plural), ex: This car is mine. Whose cars are these?
Deictic pronouns - about far objects: That (singular) - those (plural), ex: What is that ting over there? Those buildings over there are really big.
The most used indefinite pronoun in an affirmative clause is "some". It is most often used in plural, but may be used in singular and about uncountable substances, ex. There are some cars in the yard. Some boy is going around between the cars, and some girls are standing in front of the entrance door.
When one ask a question or denies something, the pronoun "any" is used, ex: Do you see a dog also? No, I do not see any dog.
As a negative indefinite pronouns, "no" can be used. The meaning is the same as "not any", ex: I see no dog in the garden.

9 Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are used to make questions about identity or sort.
Interrogative pronouns - about things: what, ex: What is this? What car is yours?
Interrogative pronouns - about persons: who (subject) - whom (object) whose (genitive), ex: Who is your wife? Whose house is this?

10 Relative pronouns
Relative pronouns is used in one sentence to show that something is the same thing talked about in another sentence.
Relative pronoun - about objects: which, ex: We shall go to the building which you see over there.
Relative pronoun - about persons: who (subject) - whom (object) whose (genitive), ex: The boy who came in now, is my son. The boy whom you see here, is my son. I do not know whose house this is.
Relative pronoun - about both things and persons: that, ex: The boy that came in now, is my son. The boy that you see here, is my son.

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